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Robert C. Toll

Robert C. Toll is the author of Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America (Oxford University Press, 1974) and On With the Show!: The First Century of Show Business in America (Oxford University Press, 1976). Much of the material in this article is adapted from those two books.

Articles by this Author

For most of the 1800s, whites in blackface performed in widely popular minstrel shows, creating racist stereotypes that endured for more than a century.
In the 19th Century, white performers invented the minstrel show, the first uniquely American entertainment form